Regional anesthesia is commonly used for postoperative pain management to decrease postoperative pain and opioid consumption following head and neck surgery. Myriad techniques can be used for both acute and chronic pain management either diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Because of the vicinity of cranial and cervical nerves to many vital structures in a compact area, the efficacy and safety of cephalic blocks are based on precise and detailed knowledge of the anatomical relationships of the selected nerve, its deep and superficial courses, and the final sensory territories.
Sensory innervation of the face and neck is supplied by the trigeminal nerve (fifth cranial or V) and the C2–C4 cervical nerve roots that constitute the superficial cervical plexus. This chapter outlines clinically applicable regional blocks of the face that for perioperative and chronic pain management.
For each block, practical anatomy, indications, technique, and type of complications are specifically described.